Integrating Gender in Medical Education

Globally, 8.4 million people are estimated to develop tuberculosis (TB) each year, and nearly 2 million deaths result from the disease. Overall, one-third of the world’s population is currently infected with the tuberculosis bacillus, over 90 per cent of them in developing countries.One notable aspect of TB prevalence worldwide is its general propensity for disproportionate occurrence in men. In most countries, tuberculosis (TB) notification is twice as high in men as in women. TB is nevertheless a leading infectious cause of death among women. Annually, about 700 000 women die of TB, and over three million contract the disease. This disease affects women mainly in their reproductively active years.

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 Gender and Tuberculosis
Sexual Inequality in Tuberculosis 
In most countries, tuberculosis (TB) notification is twice as high in men as in women. Although there is clear evidence that socioeconomic and cultural factors leading to barriers in accessing health care may cause undernotification in women, particularly in developing countries, biological mechanisms may actually account for a significant part of this difference between male and female susceptibility to TB. The role of biological gender has been determined in a number of infectious and noninfectious diseases. Find out more →

The Role of Sex Differences in the Prevalence and Transmission of Tuberculosis 
Tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology is characterized by significant differences in prevalence between men and women worldwide, with cases among men exceeding those found in women by a ratio of 2:1 in some regions. In this paper, we review the literature concerning differences in TB prevalence by sex, as well as arguments that have been offered to explain these differences. It concludes that, while underreporting and latent variables undoubtedly bias the observed differences in prevalence between males and females to some degree Find out more →

 Tuberculosis and Pregnancy
Tuberculosis Care for Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review 
Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may lead to severe consequences affecting both mother and child. Prenatal care could be a very good opportunity for TB care, especially for women who have limited access to health services. The aim of this review was to gather and evaluate studies on TB care for pregnant women. Thirty five studies were selected for review and their data showed that diagnosis was often delayed because TB symptoms during pregnancy were not typical. Find out more →

Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Review 
Tuberculosis (TB) was declared a public health emergency by WHO in 2005. The disease is a significant contributor to maternal mortality and is among the three leading causes of death among women aged 15–45 years in high burden areas. The exact incidence of tuberculosis in pregnancy, though not readily available, is expected to be as high as in the general population. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in pregnancy may be challenging, as the symptoms may initially be ascribed to the pregnancy, and the normal weight gain in pregnancy Find out more →

 Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Male Patients
Male Gender is Independently Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis 
Little is known about the association between gender and risk of TB infection. It sought to assess the impact of gender on TB prevalence among people with presumptive tuberculosis at a regional referral hospital in a high TB and HIV prevalence setting. The authors analyzed data from two diagnostic TB studies conducted in rural, southwestern Uganda. People with presumptive tuberculosis were evaluated by chest X-ray, fluorescence microscopy, TB culture, and HIV testing. Find out more →

Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Patient Gender: An Analysis and Its Implications in Tuberculosis Control
To analyze the profile of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with respect to gender and its implications in tuberculosis control. Setting: DOTS center at a tertiary, teaching hospital in South India. A retrospective study was undertaken by screening medical records of 446 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Data studied included age, gender, and sputum smear status. Find out more →

 Tuberculosis and HIV
Tackling TB and HIV in Women: An Urgent Agenda 
The interlinked tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics are taking a dramatic toll on women’s lives, notably in countries with high HIV prevalence. While TB is now the third leading cause of death among women aged 15-44, killing some 700,000 women every year and causing illness in millions more, it is particularly lethal for women living with HIV. Yet the burden of the dual TB/HIV epidemic on women, and the gender-related barriers to detection and treatment, Find out more →

Managing Drug Interactions in the Treatment of HIV-Related Tuberculosis 
Worldwide, tuberculosis is the most common serious opportunistic infection among people with HIV infection. The World Health Organization estimates that of the 8.7 million individuals who developed incident tuberculosis in 2011, 1.1 million, or 13%, were co-infected with HIV. Further, of those who suffer tuberculosis-related mortality, 31% are HIV-infected. Despite the complexities of simultaneously treating two infections requiring multidrug therapy, antiretroviral therapy is life-saving among patients with tuberculosis and advanced HIV disease. Find out more →

 Tuberculosis and Depression
Tuberculosis (TB) and depression 
Data on depression among TB patients are scarce. Aim of study was to determine frequency and forms of depression among TB patients and optimization of its management. Research was conducted at NCTL among 180 patients of 18-60 age (after written consent).I group -130 patients with resistant TB, where stress factor was newly determined presence of MDRTB: II group -50 patients “new cases”, where stress factor was newly diagnosed TB. Depression screening was done by PHR-11 questionnaire, evaluation of its stage and patient’s psycho-type was conducted by Beki 21 questionnaire test and Lusher test. Find out more →

Prevalence of Depression in Tuberculosis Patients: An Experience from A DOTS Clinic 
In India, Tuberculosis (TB) carries a social stigma even today. Long duration of treatment and attached stigma predisposes a patient to many psychiatric illnesses. To find out the prevalence of depression and factors associated with it in TB patients currently on DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course). The cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a DOTS clinic during Jan to Mar'2012. The sample size was determined by assuming percentage of depression in tuberculosis patient to be 48%  Find out more →


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