Integrating Gender in Medical Education

World AIDS Day, designated on 1 December every year since 1988,[1] is dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection, and mourning those who have died of the disease. Government and health officials, non-governmental organizations and individuals around the world observe the day, often with education on AIDS prevention and control.

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Gender and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Putting Gender on the MAP
HIV/AIDS is a significant—and worsening—health, economic, and social issue in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Africa’s share of the global pandemic is very high Of Africa’s 23.0 million adults living with HIV/AIDS, 13.2 million are women, constituting 77% of the world’s women with HIV/AIDS (data for end-2003). Africa is the only continent where HIV prevalence is higher for women than for men—women account for the majority of adults (57%) living with HIV/AIDS.Find out more →


Female Inequality and the Spreading of HIV/AIDS – A Gender-Based Study
The spreading of HIV/AIDS has a gendered dimension. In this essay the focus has been on the gender roles that create different spheres for the sexes and how they are connected to the spreading of HIV/AIDS. The construction of masculinity hinders the HIV preventing efforts due to the social demands of having several partners and the dislike of using condoms. Sometimes it also results in gender-based violence. The female gender role narrows the possibilities for women to protect themselves. Find out more →


Gender and HIV /AIDS – Guidelines for Integrating a Gender Focus into NGO Work on HIV / AIDS
The guidelines are aimed primarily at staff of international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working on or planning to work on HIV /AIDs in their programmes. They seek to help with planning and research work in the community in order to improve the effectiveness of interventions. They are a tool to help identify some of the issues which relate to the vulnerability of different groups to HIV / AIDS by enhancing understanding of gender relations and roles and the spread of HIV / AIDS. The guidelines can also be used as the basis for initial training or awareness raising exercises in the community.Find out more →


An Exploration of Empowerment, Sexual Violence, and HIV among Indian Women
Empowerment plays a major role in sexual violence and HIV among women worldwide. Findings on empowerment in relation to domestic violence or HIV are scarce and are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between empowerment and HIV status by means of sexual violence, and to compare this relationship between previously married women and currently married women living in India. Find out more →


Social Factors Affecting Women’s Susceptibility to HIV in India
This paper seeks to assess social factors associated with the transmission of HIV based on demographic determinants, such as age; sexual behavior; and gendered discrimination, such as domestic violence. Results from the bivariate analyses indicate that for the female participants, socioeconomic status has an association with serostatus, as HIV-positive women were significantly more likely to have a low level of education than their HIV-negative counterparts.Find out more →


HIV/AIDS and Gender Relations
This report starts with a brief review of recent evidence and trends, followed by epidemiological patterns from a gender perspective. To further clarify the issues, an analysis of the interface between hiv/aids and gender is presented, leading to a discussion of the current challenges with a special focus on low-income countries, notably sub-Saharan Africa.Find out more →


Gender and HIV/AIDS: Taking Stock of Research and Programmes
Gender norms ascribe distinct roles–both productive and reproductive–to women and men. By doing so, gender norms also influence women’s and men’s access to key resources. In this way, gender norms affect both individual risk and societal vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.Find out more →


HIV / AIDS and Gender Issues
Researchers, policymakers, and programmers have long recognized that gender plays a role in vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and its impacts in every region in the world. Since gender is a social construct, the differences between men and women may vary from place to place; but they are almost always present, and ultimately have a significant impact on vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.Find out more →


The Effect of Gender Inequality on HIV Risks among Couples in North India
India ranks third in the world in the number of HIV/AIDS cases. Gender-based power factors are believed to contribute significantly to disease spread in the country, where few studies have examined this. The study result finds that men expressing inequitable gender norms were more likely to report risky sexual behavior, STI symptoms, HIV stigma, and lack of HIV facility testing awareness (p<.05). Women with high levels of autonomy were less likely to have husbands who engaged in risky sex and reported STI symptoms.Find out more →


Gender Based Violence and HIV/AIDS in Cambodia
Cambodia is often cited as a country with the highest prevalence rate of HIV in Asia. The current prevalence rate is 1.9 % which is down from a high of 3.3 % in 1997. Despite this decline in prevalence, recent projections by the Cambodian Working Group on HIV/AIDS suggest that nearly half of new infections involve husband to wife transmission. If transmission among married couples is the primary route it poses new challenges and requires new strategies for combating the spread of the disease.Find out more →


Gender Inequality and the Spread of HIV-AIDS in India
The purpose of the paper is to analyze the low status of women as being a major contributor for the observed gender inequality in the spread of HIV/AIDS in India. This study highlights the problems facing women in deterring the spread of HIV/AIDS in India. Find out more →


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