Integrating Gender in Medical Education

Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although malaria affects both men and women, vulnerability to malaria and access to treatment is often different for women and men and is greatly influenced by gender roles and issues. Women, particularly pregnant women, are at the greatest risk of contracting malaria in both high and low malaria endemic areas for both biological and social reasons. The inequitable access to health care and financial resources as a result of gender and other social inequalities paves the way for women’s vulnerability to malaria and other infectious diseases. A thorough understanding of the gender-related dynamics of treatment-seeking behaviour, as well as of decision-making, resource allocation and financial authority within households is key to ensuring effective malaria control programmes. For people living with HIV/AIDS, malaria presents additional gendered vulnerabilities. Consequently, a gender approach that analyses the impact of gendered norms and behaviour on vulnerability to malaria, as well as the gender-related dynamics of health seeking behaviour, is essential in the fight against malaria. This edition of newsletter presents evidence about sex, gender and malaria and points out research gaps as well as policy implications.

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 Gender and Malaria
Gender, Health and Malaria 
Despite prevention and control efforts, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This report states a gender approach which contributes to both understanding and combating malaria. Gender norms and values that influence the division of labour, leisure patterns, and sleeping arrangements may lead to different patterns of exposure to mosquitoes for men and women. There are also gender dimensions in the accessing of treatment and care for malaria, and in the use of preventative measures such as mosquito nets. Find out more →

Gender Mainstreaming Guidelines for Malaria 
The Gender Mainstreaming Guidelines have been developed to provide guidance on gender mainstreaming in relation to Malaria. The Guidelines also apply generally to all other communicable diseases and to public health policy developments, reviews, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for other diseases. The guidelines focusing on Malaria therefore can serve also as illustrations for gender mainstreaming in other disease-specific programmes. This section provides a general overview of the Assessment findings on the status of gender mainstreaming in communicable diseases, which have informed these guidelines. Find out more →

 Malaria in Pregnancy
The Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy 
Malaria is the most important parasitic infection in humans and is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with approximately 1500 cases reported each year and rising, apart from 2008. Approximately 75% of cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and there is an average of 5–15 deaths a year (mortality rate approximately 0.5–1.0%). Immigrants and second- and third-generation relatives returning home assuming they are immune from malaria are by far the highest risk group. They may take no prophylaxis or may be deterred by the cost, may not adhere to advice, may receive poor advice or some combination of these factors. Find out more →

Prevention and Treatment of Malaria in Pregnant Women 
Malaria during pregnancy is a major cause of maternal morbidity worldwide and leads to poor birth outcomes. Pregnant women are more prone to complications of malaria infection than nongravid women. Prevention involves chemoprophylaxis and mosquito avoidance. Treatment involves antimalarial drugs and supportive measures. Issues related to prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnant women will be reviewed here. Issues related to the prevalence, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and outcome of malaria in pregnancy are discussed separately, as are general details on treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria Find out more →

 Women, HIV and Malaria
Interactions between Malaria and HIV Infections in Pregnant Women 
HIV and malaria are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in Africa. However, data from Congolese pregnant women are lacking. The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude, predictive factors, clinical, biologic and anthropometric consequences of malaria infection, HIV infection, and interactions between malaria and HIV infections in pregnant women. The prevalence of malaria infection was high in pregnant women attending the antenatal facilities or hospitalized and increased when associated with HIV infection. Find out more →

Protecting Pregnant Women from Malaria in Areas of High HIV Infection Prevalence
In the early 19th century, much of the map of Africa consisted of blank spaces—regions uncharted by Europeans. Now, 200 years later, our geographical knowledge of Africa is superb, but there are many uncharted regions in our knowledge of diseases that are endemic there The HIV and malaria epidemics overlap in sub-Saharan Africa. These are also particularly serious reproductive-health problems, imperiling the 18 million women who become pregnant each year in this region. Find out more →

 Gender difference and Anti-Malaria Drugs
Gender Difference on Stress Induced by Malaria Parasite Infection and Effect of Anti-malaria Drug on Stress Index 
Malaris is a serious public health problem in most countries of the tropics. Oxidative stress is related to the severity of the malaria, oxidative stress in malaria may originate from several sources including intracellular parasitized erythrocytes and extra-erythrocytes as a result of haemolysis. The aim of this study therefore is to determine the gender difference on stress induced by malaria parasite infection and effect of anti-malaria drug on stress index. Find out more →

Severity and Prevalence of Malaria Infection and Effect of Anti-Malaria Drugs on Gender Differences Using Some Haematological Parameters 
Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, aacording for an estimated of 300 to 500 million morbid episodes and 2 to 3 million death per year worldwide. The aim of the study is to determine severity and prevalence of malaria infection and effect of anti-malaria drugs on gender differences using haematological parameters.Severity and prevalence of malaria infection is more observed in male compared to female these might be as a result of different exposure to malaria vector. Find out more →


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