Integrating Gender in Medical Education

14th of November is observed as the World Diabetes Day every year, in order to raise public awareness of diabetes and related complications, as well as its prevention and care, including through education and the mass media. Diabetes is a devastating disease, striking with the strength of an epidemic and exhibiting characteristics of an infectious disease. Over 246 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, 122 million of whom are women. Women are uniquely affected by the disease. Physically, the risk of coronary heart disease, as well as diabetes ketoacidosis, is 50% higher for women than men. Women exhibit increased odds of developing depression because of diabetes. Socially, and structurally, women in most countries face gender inequalities, stigma and discrimination; diabetic women may be denied access to medical care, rejected as wives or be considered undesirable partners.

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  Gender Difference in Diabetes
Gender Difference in Diabetes Mellitus 
Sex had been identified as a relevant factor in the clinical representation and complications of diabetes mellitus. There are certain subtle differences between men and women with NIDDM. Difference between diabetic men and women with regard to clinical presentation and clinical features have been well documented. Find out more →

Treating Diabetes: Gender-Specific Approach of Great Importance 
The international guidelines on the drug-based therapy of diabetes mellitus specify which factors need to be taken into account during treatment. Factors such as age, the duration of the condition, life expectancy, the social environment and co-morbidities all have a part to play. “What’s missing in this checklist, however, is gender,” states an expert in gender medicine.Find out more →

  Gender and Type 2 Diabetes

Gender and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
In the first half of the last century the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher among women than among men, but this trend has shifted, so more men than women are now diagnosed with type 2 diabetes . This change in the gender distribution of type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by a more sedentary lifestyle particularly among men, resulting in increased obesity.Find out more →

Sex Differences in Type 2 Diabetes: Focus on Disease Course and Outcomes 
Women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are less likely to reach the goals for hemoglobin A1c compared with men, and have higher all-cause mortality. The risk of cardiovascular disease is elevated among both men and women with T2D, however, the risk has declined among men over recent years while it remains stationary in women. Reasons for these sex differences remain unclear, Find out more →

  Diabetes and Depression

Effect of Gender and Diabetes on Major Depressive Disorder Using Heart Rate Asymmetry 
In this study, the authors have investigated how heart rate asymmetry (HRA) changes in major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects with comorbid diabetes as well as in male and female. Depression score was determined based on PHQ-9 questionnaire and from 135 subjects 70 subjects were selected with 1000 or more RR intervals.Find out more →

Association between Diabetes and Depression: Sex and Age Differences 
The objective of this article is to examine the association between diabetes and the prevalence of depression in different sex and age groups by analysing the crosssectional data from the National Population Health Survey, conducted in Canada in 1996–1997. A total of 53 072 people aged 20–64 years were included in the analysis. Find out more →

  Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

Mapping Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Care 
Despite improvements over recent decades in care for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, which is a major CVD risk factor, evidence suggests that the care women receive — and their health outcomes — continue to lag behind those of men, even for routine care, such as monitoring and control of cholesterol. Find out more →


Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes currently affects approximately 14% of the US population, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in those with diabetes. Although in the general population women are at lower risk than men for CVD, women have a disproportionately greater increase in risk for CVD than do men in the context of diabetes. Find out more →


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