Integrating Gender in Medical Education

Physicians and researchers recognized that women’s health encompassed more than those conditions unique to females; that women’s experiences with gender-common conditions and the treatments for them often differed significantly from those of men. Men and women aren’t the same when it comes to their health and health problems.

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Sensitization of Medical Education on Gender

Medical Education and Gender

Is Gender a Drug Safety Issue in the Era of Personalized Medicine? 
In January 2013, FDA told manufacturers to lower the dose of zolpidem, the insomnia treatment, for women, and suggested a 10 mg to 5 mg for immediate-release products (Ambien, Edluar, and Zolpimist) and from 12.5 mg to 6.25 mg for extended-release products (Ambien CR). That was based on evidence the drug is metabolized more slowly in women, which makes the side effect of next-day impairment more likely in women than men.Find out more →


Gender Differences in Medical Treatment 
It has been the practice for many years to have all the research animals used in medicine be male. The thinking was the same for the lab rats that it was for women. They were thought to be biologically the same as male rats, but with those "pesky" hormones.This video talks about the new emphasis that is being placed on recognizing, within the field of medicine, that men and women are different.Find out more →


Gender and Healthcare

History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Risk of Atherosclerosis in Mid-life: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study 
History of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which increase risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, whether GDM increases risk of early atherosclerosis independent of pre-pregnancy obesity and subsequent metabolic disease. Find out more →

Recent Oral Contraceptive Use by Formulation and Breast Cancer Risk among Women 20 to 49 Years of Age 
Previous studies of oral contraceptives and breast cancer indicate that recent use slightly increases risk, but most studies relied on self-reported use and did not examine contemporary oral contraceptive formulations. This nested case–control study was among female enrollees in a large U.S. integrated health care delivery system. Cases were 1,102 women ages 20 to 49 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1990 to 2009.Find out more →

Gender and Cardiac Health
Cardiovascular Disease in Women: A Journey toward a Focus on Prevention 
Much progress has been made in terms of diagnosing and treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women, but many women are still dying of CVD than any other disease. The author briefly reviews the progress that has been made regarding CVD in women, examines the current state of the science, discusses the new effectiveness-based guidelines that focus on prevention, and considers implications for nurse practitioners.Find out more →

Is Diabetes Mellitus a Heart Disease Equivalent in Women? Results From an International Study of Postmenopausal Women in the Raloxifene Use for the Heart (RUTH) Trial
Several studies have concluded that diabetes mellitus and heart disease carry similar risk for future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most of these studies were too small to quantify independent risks specific to women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diabetes mellitus is a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent for prediction of future CHD and CVD events in women.Find out more →


 Gender and Depression
Gender Disparities in Mental Health 
This paper examines current evidence regarding rates, risk factors, correlates and consequences of gender disparities in mental health. Gender is conceptualized as a structural determinant of mental health and mental illness that runs like a fault line, interconnecting with and deepening the disparities associated with other important socioeconomic determinants such as income, employment and social position.Find out more →

Women and Depression: Does Gender Matter? 
Depression, like many other psychiatric illnesses, may present differently in women versus men. These disparities go beyond the depressive syndromes unique to women namely, postpartum and menopausal depression and often manifest in women with major depressive disorder. This study found that women may be more prone to atypical symptoms of depression.Find out more →

Reproductive Health and Women

The Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Market in Bangladesh: Where Do Poor Women Go? 
In Bangladesh, the formal public health system provides few services for common sexual and reproductive health problems such as white discharge, fistula, prolapse, menstrual problems, reproductive and urinary tract infections, and sexual problems. Recent research has found that poor women and men resort to informal providers for these problems instead.Find out more →

Positive and Pregnant – How Dare You: A Study on Access to Reproductive and Maternal Health Care for Women Living With HIV in Asia 
This publication reports on a study conducted by the Women’s Program of the Asia Pacific Network of People Living with HIV (WAPN+), together with the Regional Treatment Working Group, on positive women’s access to reproductive and maternal health care and services in six Asian countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Nepal, and Viet Nam. The objective of the study was to assess the experience of accessing reproductive and maternal health services as reported by HIV positive women over 16 years of age and pregnant in the past 18 months.Find out more →

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