Integrating Gender in Medical Education

Today, half or more of the 40 million people infected with HIV in the world are women. It has been recognizes that the HIV pandemic uniquely impacts women, as they are socially and biologically more vulnerable to the infection. Though both men and women experience stigma, they tend to experience it in much different ways. HIV/AIDS-related stigma is compounded by gender stigma, which reinforces existing economic, social, educational, cultural, and access issues associated with sex. This in turn affects their access to healthcare opportunities. Women are perhaps more affected due to differing social norms associated with appropriate sexual behavior. Psychological distress and depression associated with HIV have also been found to be more prevalent in women,5 impacting access and adherence.

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 Gender Disparity in HIV/AIDS
Women and HIV/AIDS: Treatment Issues 
Physiologically women are at greater risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because they have a larger surface area of mucosa (wet surfaces) exposed to their partners’ semen, and semen remains in women several hours after sex. STIs make women more vulnerable to HIV infection because STIs can weaken the mucosal membrane, or even produce genital ulcers, which provide easier access for HIV. Frequently women do not experience symptoms of STIs, and if left untreated the body is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS.Find out more →

Gender, Inequalities, and HIV/AIDS
This volume provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the relationship between gender, inequality and vulnerability to HIV infection and AIDS. It brings together contributions from scholars and practitioners from across the world to explore the relevance of these core concepts to their understanding of the AIDS crisis and the politics of effective response. The chapters in Gender and HIV/AIDS examine current thinking about sexuality, masculinity, gender roles, and culture in relation to HIV/AIDS and global politics of intervention and regulation.Find out more →

 Gender Violence & HIV/AIDS
Gender Violence and HIV 
Gender violence as both a cause and effect of HIV has long been recognised. It is also well-documented that high levels of sexual and gender violence exacerbate women’s risks and vulnerabilities to HIV exposure and transmission, while a positive HIV status exacerbates women’s risks and vulnerabilities to violence, abuse and other rights violations.Find out more →

Violence Against Women and HIV/AIDS: Critical Intersections Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS
The high rates of HIV infection in women have brought into sharp focus the problem of violence against women. There is a growing recognition that women and girls’ risk of and vulnerability to HIV infection is shaped by deep-rooted and pervasive gender inequalities - violence against them in particular. Find out more →

 HIV Positive in Pregnancy
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Pregnancy: A Review of the Guidelines for Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission in Malaysia 
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) is a devastating consequence of HIV infection during pregnancy and is largely preventable. Evidence-based interventions such as universal antenatal screening, provision of antiretroviral therapy, delivery by elective caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding have ensured that the rates of MTCT remain low in Malaysia. This review discusses the most recent advances in the management of HIV infection in pregnancy with emphasis on antiretroviral treatment strategies and obstetric care in a middle income country.Find out more →

Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIV Infection in Infants: Towards Universal Access 
These revised guidelines on antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants in resource-limited settings are consistent with, and aim to support the "Call to action towards an HIV-free and AIDS-free generation." The document is one of a trilogy of guidelines published at the same time which provide recommendations developed by WHO Find out more →

 Depression & HIV/AIDS
Gender Differences in Depression In HIV-Infected Patients 
Gender differences in an HIV-infected population living in downstate Illinois are examined. Depression is measured using the CES-D screening tool. Statistical tests are run on both quantitative and qualitative data in order to determine if a gender difference exists. The difference in CES-D scores was not found to be statistically significant. Possible explanations for this finding are suggested. These explanations include: population demographics, small sample size, and effects of medicationFind out more →

Relationship of Gender, Depression and Health Care Delivery with Antiretroviral Adherence in HIV infected Drug Users 
Antiretroviral adherence is worse in women than in men, and depression can influence medication adherence. To evaluate the relationship of gender, depression, medical care, and mental health care to adherence in HIV-infected drug users. A pharmacy-based measure of adherence was defined as > or =95% days covered by at least 2 prescribed antiretroviral drugs. Find out more →
 Transgender & HIV Care
Trans Populations and HIV: Time to End the Neglect 
Of all populations affected by HIV worldwide, evidence suggests that trans populations may be the most heavily burdened. Due to stigma, neglect, and institutionalized discrimination, the HIV response has largely failed to address the needs of trans people. Achieving an AIDS-free generation will demand more effective, sustained, rights-based programs for this at-risk population.Find out more →

Care of the HIV Infected Transgender Patient 
Clinicians caring for HIV-infected patients may encounter individuals whose experienced gender does not conform to his/her natally assigned sex. These guidelines use the term transgender to refer to a broad range of nonconforming gender identities. Some patients may be unsure of their gender identity and may not have had opportunities to discuss their concerns with a medical professional. Find out more →


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